Prior Studies

Life and Work of Arthur Norman Prior

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Box 7

Mainly papers/drafts

Last updated: 2018-06-29 12:31:04

  • Notes on a new edition of 'Papers on Time and Tense'. HWU (9 p.). 1969.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)This is a brief synopsis for a second edition of 'Papers on Time and Tense' 1968a, with a new preface. (This second edition has never appeared.) The new table of contents, as suggested by Prior, goes like this:

      New Table of Contents

      I. Changes in Events and Changes in Things

      II. Fugitive Truth

      III. On Spurious Egocentricity

      IV. The Formalities of Omniscience

      V. Contemplation and Action

      VI. The Consequences of Actions

      VII. Limited Indeterminism

      VIII. Identifiable Individuals

      IX. Time, Existence and Identity

      X. Recent Advances in Tense Logic

      XI. The Logic of Ending Time

      XII. Stratified Metric Tense Logic

      XIII. "Now"

      XIV. Tense Logic and the Logic of earlier and later

      XV. Tensed Propositions as Predicates

      XVI. Quasi-propositions and Quasi-individuals

      XVII. Egocentric Logic

      XVIII.Worlds, Times and Selves

      XIX. Tense-logic for non-permanent Existents.

      XX. Modal Logic and the Logic of Applicability. A Bibliography of Tense Logic

      It is worth noting that in 'Worlds, Times and Selves' 1977a, Kit Fine included four of those chapters (XV, XVII, XVIII, XX) suggested by Prior himself for this second edition of 'Papers on Time and Tense'. See also Folder with material for the book 'Worlds, Times and Selves'/box 7.

  • 'A History of Scottish Theology'. HWU (154 pages). 1949.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): Notes for an intended book.

      This item contains amongst other things a large section on Adam Gib's 'Sacred Contemplations', a piece of devotional literature cherished by Prior. (Cf. [Kenny 1970]). The project was given up after the Priors' house was burnt in 1949 (signs of burns are quite evident on this manuscript). Mary Prior writes: "This was an important project until 1949. The burning of the house was a turning point!" Thereafter, Prior turned his attention decisively towards logic. In so far as he discussed theology in later work, it was to be predominantly under the perspective of its inter-relationship with logical issues. See also [Hasle 1997b], and A folder of papers on theology/box 7.

  • 'Modality, Quantification and Time'. TU (15 p.). Ca. 1958.

The paper is marked CUC (Canterbury University College). It is later than 1954 (latest reference is to Ryle's 'Dilemmas', 1954) and probably from the period 1957–58. (See also 1956b for thematical overlaps.)
--- Per Hasle

  • The Grammar and the Metaphysics of Time. HWU (5 p.). DATE?
    • INFO (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)Attached to this manuscript a handwritten plan of chapters (or sections) is found. For that reason the manuscript was in all likelihood intended as the introduction to a book. The plan of chapters roughly reads as follows:
      1. Circular Time
      2. Cirularity and Discreteness
      3. The Logic of Ending Time
      4. Branching Time
      5. Presentness
      6. Non-temporally related temporal series: ... [unable to read ANP's hand here; perhaps: Continous Time]
      7. Non-temporally related temporal series: ... [unable to read ANP's hand here; perhaps: Imagination and Possibility]
      8. Non-temporally related temporal series: Theory of relativity
      9. Time and Identity

      It seems, then, that this project was never realised, at least not exactly in this form, but the subjects indicated are dealt with in books and papers by Prior.

  • The Place of Time in Logic. HWU (5 p., but rudimentary: numbered 1-2, 13-15). DATE?
  • Racialism. HWU (13 p.). 1948?.

Apparently broadcast in NZ in 'This Week's Overseas News', 01.10.48 10 a.m.
--- Per Hasle

  • Reactions to Determinism. TU (5 p.). DATE?

Mary Prior (1997) thinks that this has been published somewhere. 
--- Per Hasle

  • Religion and Ethics. HWU (22 p.). DATE? Theological.
  • Reply to H. Sluga. TU (8 p.). Ca. 1965?

A discussion of deontic logic. 
--- Per Hasle

  • Reply to Stevenson. HWU (6 p.). 1961/62.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): In 1961 J. T. Stevenson published a criticism [Stevenson, J. T.: 1961, 'Roundabout the Runabout Inference Inference-Ticket', Analysis, 21, pp. 124-128] of Prior's paper 'The Runabout Inference-Ticket' (1960a). In this paper Prior had implicitly attacked some of the ideas of "Ordinary Language Philosophy" (and especially, the method of asking for - not to say, inventing - "circumstances of use", at least when discussing logically valid inferences). For this purpose Prior introduced an artificial connective 'tonk' (see also 1964c), which gave rise to a good deal of subsequent discussion. - This manuscript is obviously a reply to Stevenson's criticisms of Prior's 1960-paper.
  • Russell's Philosophy. TU (4. p.). Ca. 1965?

According to a note by Mary Prior ('BR'): "Probably prepared for NZ Broadcasting corporation for future use on occasion of Russell's death"; probably from after 1960 (as it happens, Russell long outlived ANP). Also compare with 1967j.
--- Per Hasle

  • Sense and Sensibilia. HWU (11p.). 1962/63.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)This manuscript is a review of Austin, J.L.: 1962, Sense and Sensibilia, Clarendon Press, Oxford, which ANP was asked to write for MIND. Mary Prior ('BR') has added this observation: "Unpublished – deliberately I think. A. was asked to write this for 'Mind'.". One may add that the review is critical of Austin's thought, although that would hardly be a sufficient reason for not publishing it.– In addition one finds many pages (ca. 40) of scattered notes on the same subject.
  • Some Dogmas in the Philosophy of Mind. HWU (4 p.). Ca. 1968.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): This text has been improved and incorporated into 'logical Form', Third Folder/Box 8
  • Some Free Thinking about Time. T (6 p.). ORIG 1996a.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)In 'Some Free Thinking About Time', Prior stated his belief in indeterminism as well as the limitations to Divine Foreknowledge very clearly:

      I believe that what we see as a progress of events is a progress of events, a coming to pass of one thing after another, and not just a timeless tapestry with everything stuck there for good and all... [SFTT, p. 1]

      This belief of mine... is bound up with a belief in real freedom. One of the big differences between the past and the future is that once something has become past, it is, as it were, out of our reach - once a thing has happened, nothing we can do can make it not to have happened. But the future is to some extent, even though it is only to a very small extent, something we can make for ourselves.... if something is the work of a free agent, then it wasn't going to be the case until that agent decided that it was. [SFTT, p. 2]

      I would go further than Duns Scotus and say that there are things about the future that God doesn't yet know because they're not yet to be known, and to talk about knowing them is like saying that we can know falsehoods. [SFTT, p. 3]

      Dating: ca. 1958-59? – Peter Øhrstrøm [In Copeland 1996] has scrutinised the possible dating of 'Some Free Thinking About Time' (SFTT). He has observed that "there is an obvious textual overlap with 'The syntax of time-distinctions' (1958 d.)", which was based on a talk given by Prior in 1954. However, "with respect to the treatment of relativity, STD [i.e. 1958d.] seems premature when compared with SFTT ... [this and a few other] observations make it natural to assume that SFTT was written some years after STD" (and probably as a manuscript for a talk). On the other hand, Mary Prior (in a letter 09.02.1997 to Per Hasle) dates at least the first conception of SFTT to 1953. (See [Hasle 1997b]).

      We may add that Prior uses some examples which may place this version even later than does Øhrstrøm, namely around or a little before 1962: "God cannot know that 2 and 2 are 5, because 2 and 2 aren't 5, and if He's left some matter to someone's free choice, He cannot know the answer to the question 'How will that person choose?' because there isn't any answer to it until he has chosen"; cf. 1962e, pp. 114–115, 122, 129. Moreover, he uses the argument about what we mean when saying 'Thank Goodness that's over', cf. 1959b.

      One might conjecture, then, that SFTT was first drafted in 1953, but that the version kept in the Bodleian Library and published in (Copeland 96) may be significantly later and substantially reworked, possibly for a talk.

      See also [Hasle 1997b].

  • A Statement of Temporal Realism. T (4 p.) ORIG 1996b.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)The original must have been written around 1968 and in any case no earlier than 1967, since Prior on p. 1 describes himself as 'Author of Past, Present and Future, The Clarendon Press, 1967'.

      Nevertheless, Mary Prior ('BR') has added this note: "This may have been concocted for that Armenian philosopher who was here in 1966". If so, one must presume that the existing version was (re-)written somewhat later, but at any rate Mary Prior's remark has, of course, the form of a conjecture.)

  • Things and Stuff. T (3 p.). ORIG 1976b (pp. 181-186).
    • INFO (Per Hasle): Some handwritten notes are added, plus 8 handwritten pages.

      Original DATE: ca. 1966-67? When the paper was originally written remains to be established more conclusively. But in 1976b, Geach and Kenny (implicitly) date this paper as lying between 1965 and 1968 (namely the papers 'The cogito of Descartes and the concept of self-confirmation' 1965b, and 'Intentionality and intensionality' 1968d). ('Intentionality and intensionality' was according to [Kenny 1970, p. 346] in fact written in 1966.)

  • What is Logic. T (10p.). ORIG 1976b.

Two versions are found, respectively HW (13 p.) and T (10 p.).
Original DATE: Ca. 1962. 
In 1976b, Geach and Kenny (implicitly) date this paper as 1962 (it occurs between the papers 'Nonentities' 1962b and 'Some Problems of Self-reference in John Buridan' 1962i). (It may be noted that 'Nonentities' was according to [Kenny 1970, p. 341] in fact written in 1955. Nevertheless, the position of 'What is Logic' in 1976b must indicate that Geach and Kenny estimate this paper to have been written in 1962.)
--- Per Hasle

  • Worlds, Times and Selves. T (25 p.). ORIG 1969d. (See also Folder with material for the book 'Worlds, Times and Selves'/box 7).

A folder of papers on theology

Quite likely these items were meant to be included as (or reworked for) parts of ANP's project of writing a History of Scottish theology (this has been suggested by Mary Prior, and would certainly be reasonable on grounds of their contents).

The folder contains the following items:

  • Robert Barclay: Quaker or Calvinist? TU (15 p.). Ca. 1941.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): The paper takes its starting point in a discussion of the different attitudes towards mission exhibited by Quakers vs. Calvinists. The Quakers eagerly endorsed mission, whereas Calvinists were reluctant – a difference, which stems exactly from a difference in opinion with regard to whether Christ died for all men, or for the Elect only. That, in turn, leads back to the interpretation of predestination. In this paper, the distinction between the Elect and the Reprobate (those predestined to damnation) made by the leading 16th century Scottish Presbyterian John Knox is determined as essentially a distinction between what men are in Christ and what they are in themselves or "in Adam". [p. 8] This is further refined by reference to Karl Barth's discussion of Election in his Gifford lectures (in Edinburgh 1939), where Barth

      ...unites the doctrine of Predestination with that of Christ's Person and Work so intimately that neither has any meaning without the other. Predestination – the doctrine that God "chooses" men for himself no matter what they themselves may be or do – means that from all eternity God sees us, not as we are in ourselves, lost men and reprobates, but as we are in His Son Who came to take our place... [p. 12]

      One might say – somewhat crudely – that on such an interpretation the division stated by the doctrine of predestination is no so much a division between different individuals as a division within each individual. Prior concludes that "Calvinists have increasingly succumbed to the temptation to replace the distinction between what men are in Christ and what they are in themselves, by one between different groups of men...". [p. 13]. See also [Hasle 1997b].

      Dating: Ca. 1941.

      The paper was at first entitled 'Ut omnes unum sint': "That they may all be one" [in Christ], John 17. (This was the chapter which the Scottish Presbyterian reformer John Knox asked to have read on his death-bed, cf. 1946b, p. 20.) The paper was obviously written around 1941-42, when Prior was in London. Whether it was submitted while Prior was in London is not clear; but by all evidence it was submitted late in 1942, briefly after he returned to New Zealand (unfortunately, it is not known to which journal). The problems dealt with as well as the references suggest that it is a follow-up to Prior's work in 1940 on the proposed revision of the Westminster Confession.(See also Additions to Bibliography 1940o and Scrapbook Listings, section 1, item 97.)

  • From Paisley to Princeton. TU (15 p.). Ca. 1940.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)The paper discusses the work of John Witherspoon (1722–1794), who in the course of his life went from being a Presbyterian minister of the parish of Paisley to become a President of Princeton. In his writings, he poured scorn on the (rationalistic) "Moderates"; nevertheless he urged moderation among Evangelicals, seeing clearly the dangers of an uneducated ministry and excessive emphasis on personal religious feeling. He was engaged in politics, especially during the American War of Independence, where he was a signator to the Declaration of Independence. But he stressed a difference between the Church's religious role and political activity – i.e. he accepted a sharp distinction between Church and State. Prior mentions this with approval (even though Prior himself combined his Christianity with a commitment to Socialism).

      Dating: written ca. 1940, when Prior was attached to 'New Zealand House', London.

  • Calvinism as a Moral Revolution. TU (8 p.). Ca. 1940.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): The paper briefly surveys the 4th Int. Congress of Calvinists, Edinburgh, July 1938. The congress was dedicated to the theme of 'Ethical Consequences' of the Reformed Faith. Prior refers some major contributions, including one by Karl Barth's associate, Dr. W. Vischer. Prior stresses that "It should never be forgotten that the reformation was not merely a revolution in ideas, but a moral revolution as well [p. 1]", and that "The Christianity that [Calvin] found in Scripture was not just "another religion", but was a deliverance from all "religions", from all attempts to win God's favour by our own strivings." [p. 2]

      The paper is rather harsh in its attitude towards Catholicism:

      "The earliest documents of the Reformation are full of this note of "deliverance" from the strained "religious" moralities of heathenism and the mixture of heathenism and Christianity that make up the faith of the Papacy..." [p. 2]

      Discussing the relation between Calvinism and Capitalism, it is observed that one striking historical result of the Reformation was "the liberation of merchants and townsmen from the atmosphere of suspicion which had surrounded their activities in the Middle Age", thus supporting "The economic progress which extending trade and the growth of cities alone could bring about..." [p. 6]; "... while Luther abolished individual distinctions between priests and soldiers and peasants, he retained the basic medieval suspicion of commerce, which Calvin's more radical Protestantism alone was able to overcome". [p. 7]

      It is worth noting that Prior here seems to offer – or at least to refer with approval – an argument for Calvinism over Lutherdom. Also striking is the acceptance of a relatively positive description of Capitalism; given Marxist theory this is perhaps not surprising, but some critical (socialist) qualifications of it could have been expected.

      Dating: written ca. 1940, when Prior was attached to 'New Zealand House', London. See also [Kenny 1970, p. 324]. A number of thematically related papers are found in. Scrapbook Listings, section 1 (items 5, 14, 15, 23, 31 and 43).

  • An Edinburgh Principal of the Eighteenth Century. TU (14 p.). DATE? (Early).
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)This paper examines the ideas of Dr. William Wishart (d. 1752), Principal of the University of Edinburgh at the early/mid-Eighteenth Century, put forth in his 'Discourses'. The main theme of the discussion is the State. Prior discusses the development from early revolutionary Calvinism in Scotland into its role as a part of established society, of which Wishart is an exponent – and the related transformation of the "Calvinist myth", being an idea of a state ruled by Calvinist orthodoxy. By and large, Prior sees this as a natural and acceptable development, finding that Wishart is not all that far from John Knox (with whom Prior dealt in several papers, see [Hasle 1997b], or e.g. 1946b.). The paper opens and ends with placing this development into the sociology of French syndicalist Georges Sorel. Not surprisingly, the paper also contains some approving references to Barth (his 'Church and State').

      (- It may be of some peripheral interest that Wishart was a chief opponent to Hume's candidature in 1745 for a chair in Moral Philosophy in Edinburgh, on grounds of Hume's anti-religious writings. Hume did not obtain the chair.)

  • Notes on the Westminster Confession and the proposed revision. TU (2p.) + HWU (3 p.). 1940.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): In 1939–40, Prior analysed and wrote on a by then proposed revision of the Westminster Confession. His concern about predestination is evident:

      There would be almost universal agreement that the original Calvinist doctrine of predestination requires revision... The cue to the revision that is necessary is already given in the original confession itself, when it takes over the Biblical description of the Church as "the fulness of him that filleth all in all." The Calvinist doctrine of predestination should be criticised in the light of what is here cited as its own proof-text, Ephesians 1. [p. 1]

      His comments on the Westminster Confession were further elaborated in The Logic of Calvinism/box 7. Some papers built on these analyses were published two–three years after, e.g. in 'Background of the Westminster Assembly', Presbyter 33, 1942, and 'The Forms of Thought of the Westminster Standards', Presbyter 21, 1942, i.e. Additions to Bibliography 1942i and Additions to Bibliography 1942f. (See also Scrapbook Listings, section 4, items 15 and 16).

      See also [Hasle 1997b], [Kenny 70, p. 325].

  • The Logic of Calvinism. HWU (26 p.). Ca. 1940?.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)An elaboration of Prior's work on the Westminster Confession (begun in Notes on the Westminster Confession/box 7). In this paper, he (further) criticises 'The Orthodox Calvinist doctrine' of predestination for maintaining "that men are created saved men or damned men; what then becomes the necessity of a "new creation"? We seem to have moved a long way from the original premise of the doctrine of predestination, which is that men have nothing to hope for in themselves, and everything to hope for in Christ, in whom God has seen them from all eternity." [p. 17] These remarks are indicative not only of his concern about predestination, but also anticipate his (Barthian) answer to such worries (which is given in a more elaborate manner in Robert Barclay: Quaker or Calvinist?/box 7, as well as the considerably later 'Supralapsarianism', 1947d).

      See also [Hasle 1997b].

      Dating: The contents points to ca. 1940. However, it is written on paper marked 'National Patriotic Fund Board' together with a small picture of military servicemen, and with the header 'On Active Service'. This might indicate that it was written while ANP was in the Air Force (1943-45). See the remarks on Notes on the Westminster Confession/box 7.

  • Faith, Unbelief and Evil. TU (19 p.) Ca. 1943.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)Built as a dialogue between Historian, (Barthian) Theologian, and (atheist) Humanist, the paper opens with a quote from Karl Barth (the fourth of his "main theses" on God's Election of Grace in his 'Dogmatic'): "...that the choice of the Godless is null and void, that he belongs to Jesus Christ from eternity and thus is not rejected, but rather chosen by God in Jesus Christ, that the reprobation which he deserves on the basis of his wrong choice is borne and removed by Jesus Christ...". [p. 1]. This being a significant prelude, given Prior's constant preoccupation with the problems of predestination, respectively determinism, the paper proceeds as a discussion among the three on the subjects of (i) Our knowledge and our Ignorance of God, (ii) The Paradox of Evil, (iii) Atheism and Evil, (iv) The Two edged Sword, (v) God's Strategic Retreat. In good Priorean style, central themes are quickly identified and lucidly debated, but I content myself with a significant quote concerning predestination: "We are not called upon to do the really crucial acting here – we are not called upon to "take damnation lovingly" [as Christ did on the Cross], and we couldn't do it if we were; but we are called upon to live as those for whom God himself has done this. And that is the whole of the negative side of predestination – the whole meaning of "predestination to damnation". And the positive side, too. It is the Gospel." [p. 17]. This – especially when taken together with the Barth-quote above – may well be Prior's answer to his own qualms and fears about the Calvinist doctrine of predestination.

      It is interesting to compare this paper with 'Can Religion Be Discussed?' (1942a). Both are cameos, built as dialogues between invented persons typifying certain positions. But here, the implicit answer to the question: Can Religion Be Discussed? is a (qualified) affirmation. In the course of the discussion, Humanist at times seem to be on the point of saying that further discussion is not possible – venting reservations, which have no doubt been troubling Prior himself: "It seems to me frankly, that the central affirmations of Christianity are self-contradictory and absurd, and Barth even seems at times to be saying as much himself... One cannot even discuss Christianity then, for if it is self-contradictory, then its statements just cancel out one another and there's nothing to discuss" [p. 3-4].

      Actually, Theologian and Historian (who is also a Christian, as his statements in the long run make it clear) are on the point of concurring – that further discussion is meaningless; but the discussion does carry on, indeed in a meaningful way.

      If this paper is later than 1942a (I think it is – see 'Dating' below) it may well be seen as reflecting Prior's own overcoming his religious crisis vented in 1942a. In 'Faith, Unbelief and Evil', Theologian is given the last word: 'Faith may be awakened in men by their seeing how near they have brought us to the loss of it - as we all brought God near to loss of faith in Himself [Jesus on the Cross] - or it may not; but to this degree all events, "as was the master, so must the servant be" ". [p. 19].

      Dating: Ca. 1943.

      This paper was probably written 1943 and related to ANP's crisis of belief around this time: According to [Kenny 1970, p. 326] it "was never published, it looks forward to Logic and the Basis of Ethics" (i.e. Prior 1949a)).

      - The paper has references to a number of thinkers dealt with in other theological papers by Prior in the early fourties, also using some of the same quotes; these persons are Wishart (spelled Wisheart, repeatedly), Crawford, Rutherford (spelled Rutherfurd, repeatedly), Witherspoon, Dickie, Twisse, Edwards, "Rabbi" John Duncan, and, of course, Calvin, Knox, and Karl Barth.

      See also [Hasle 1997b].

  • A Modernist Stocktaking. TU (6 p.). Ca. 1940.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)The paper warns against taking for granted the gains of "Modernism", especially the right to free and critical inquiry, and also deals with the position of Christianity in the face of Modernism. It rejects fundamentalism, but otherwise embraces Christianity – warning, however, against a "bringing-up-to-date" of Christianity (such as the one taking place in Germany at the time). ANP states that "To pay complete and sincere respect to the disinterestedness of the pure scientist is not always so easy even for the enlightened believer as it is sometimes made to sound. It remains none the less our abiding duty." [p. 4]. It is observed, however, that scientists, being men, need to be defended from making a religion out of science, a defence which is a duty of Cristian thinkers. Finally, the modernist spirit is endorsed: "...the Modernist spirit, the spirit of free and critical inquiry and hard and courageous thinking, is as unpopular as ever it was, and will need our militant defence for a very long time to come." [p. 6].

      Dating: written ca. 1940, when Prior was attached to 'New Zealand House', London.

  • Of God's Plan or Purpose. HWU (10 p.). Ca. 1940?.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): A reference to 'The Forms of Thought of the Westminster Standard' is scribbled in the margin. - Possibly this item is the handwritten original or draft of 'The Forms of Thought of the Westminster Standard', The Presbyter, No.31. July-August 1942. (Cf. Additions to Bibliography 1942f).(See Scrapbook Listings, section 4, item 16).
  • Untitled notes on theology. HWU (7 p.). 25 March, 1942.

Further papers in Box 7:

  • (These are not mentioned in the present overview in the Bodleian Library's list of the contents of the boxes).
  • The Notion of the Present. T (8 p.). + HW (15 p.). ORIG 1970b.
  • Occurring and Following. TU (13 p.). Ca. 1958.

The paper is marked CUC (Canterbury University College), and is evidently after 'Time and Modality' 1957a. This dates it with certainty between 1957-58.
--- Per Hasle

  • Photic Flashes and Phosphemes. TU (3 p.). Ca. 1968?.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): This paper discusses a 1967-paper by J.M. Hinton (J.M. Hinton: 'Visual Experience', Mind, April 1967); it therefore must be from 1967 or later. - Also a letter on the matter, probably from Hinton (HW. 2 p.). The paper is marked 'Withdrawn from Publication' (probably by Mary Prior).
  • Time and History. TU (1 p.). 1961. (A Programme for a minor lecture course in York)
  • Folder with material for the book 'Worlds, Times and Selves'. Ca. 1969.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)This material was used by Kit Fine for 1977a.

      At the general level, this material (and the book) deals with the relation between modal logic and quantification theory. The logical and philosophical aim was to "was to show that modal and tense logic could stand on their own, that talk of possible worlds or instants was to be reduced to them rather than the other way round" (Kit Fine, 1977a, p. 8). In this endeavour, a significant formal part consists in developing the egocentric counterpart to ordinary tense or modal logic, whose crucial feature is the operator Q "that picks out those propositions that correspond to instants, worlds or selves, as the case may be". (Kit Fine, 1977a, p. 8).

      An immediate idea of the way in which the book makes use of this archive material can be had from the following brief survey:

      Chapters 2, 4, 5, 6 of 1977a are reprints of

      2: 1968h. 'Egocentric logic', Nous, Vol. 2 (1968), pp. 191-207.

      4: 1969d. Worlds, times and selves, L'Age de la Science, No. 3 (1969), pp. 179-191.

      5: 1969e. 'Tensed propositions as predicates', The American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 6 (1969), pp. 290-297.

      6: 1968k. 'Modal Logic and the Logic of Applicability', Theoria, Vol. 34. (1968), pp. 183-202.


      (It is worth noting that all of these chapters were suggested by Prior himself for inclusion in a second revised edition of 'Papers on Time and Tense' 1968a; see Notes on a new edition of 'Papers on Time and Tense'/box 7.)

      The parts using archival material are these:

      Chapter 1 is Prior's introduction 'The parallel between Modal Logic and Quantification Theory', chapter 3 is a supplement to 'Egocentric Logic', chapter 7 is a supplement to 'Modal Logic and the Logic of Applicability'. Finally there is chapter 8, Kit Fine's postscript.

      The folder also contains one of ANP's last scribbled notes (written in Åndalsnes, Norway), with the following significant phrase: "What is time? Time is a logical construction".

  • Ut omnes unum sint. TU (15 p.). Ca. 1941.

See Robert Barclay: Quaker or Calvinist?/box 7; the two manuscripts share a (verbatim) identical content, and differ only with respect to title. However, ANP has added a few comments/corrections, different for each manuscript version.
--- Per Hasle

  • Review of Karl Barth's Gifford Lectures. T (2 p.). 1939.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): 
      fill5.gif (67 bytes)This was published in 'The Evangelical Quarterly', 1939, pp. 95-96. It is a review of: Barth, Karl: 1939, 'The Knowledge of God and the Service of God According to the Teaching of the Reformation'. The Gifford Lectures delivered in the University of Aberdeen in 1937 and 1938 by Karl Barth. Hodder and Stoughton.

      Thus this item is in fact an offprint, but not found in Øhrstrøm/Flo's bibliography. See Additions to Bibliography 1939a. Also found in scrapbook in box 11. (See Scrapbook Listings, section 1, item 80a).

  • Revelation. T (2 p.). 1941.
  • On the Outside Always Looking In. T (3 p.). 1946.
    • INFO (Per Hasle): ORIG for Additions to Bibliography 1946c. The item in the box is incomplete. (Page 15 is missing; Mary Prior and Per Hasle are in possession of full copies). It was published in 'The Student', Item 1, pp. 9–10 and 15. March 1946.
  • Something To Read: The Organism of Christian Truth. T (1 p.). 1941.
    • ABSTRACT (Per Hasle): ORIG for Additions to Bibliography 1941f. This is a description of John Dickie's 'The Organism of Christian Truth', a work which considerably influenced Prior as a young man. (John Dickie was Principal of Knox Theological Hall, Otago, where Prior out of interest took some courses during his B.A. studies; cf. [Hasle 1997b]). It was published as: Something to Read II: The Organism of Christian Truth. The Student. April 1941, Page Four. Thus this item is in fact an offprint of one of the Additions to Bibliography 1941f (see also Scrapbook Listings, section 1, item 19).
  • Christian News. T (4 p.). 1940..

ORIG for Additions to Bibliography 1940q. (See also Scrapbook Listings, section 1, item 11).
--- Per Hasle

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  • DK-2300 Copenhagen S

  • Denmark

Peter Øhrstrøm ©

  • Department of Communication and Psychology

  • Aalborg University

  • Rendsburggade 14

  • DK-9000 Aalborg

  • Denmark

David Jakobsen ©

  • Department of Communication and Psychology

  • Aalborg University

  • Rendsburggade 14

  • DK-9000 Aalborg

  • Denmark